In the 90s, the firm had to cope with a number of challenges: The microwave oven, increasing health consciousness and competition. In 1999, as Jack Greenberg took over the reins of the firm, the situation was complicated due to competition between fast-food giants. McDonald's timelines: 1937: The McDonald brothers opened a drive-in in Passadena. After opening a much larger restaurant in San Bernardino, they introduced the "Speedy Service System" in 1948. 1952: First McDonald's franchise in Phoenix. 1955: Ray Kroc funds McDonald's System. Inc. 1961: Kroc & Sonneborne change the franchise concept in real estate operations. In the same years the Hamburger University was established: A key element for the McDonald's Business Model. 1963: McDonald's sells 1 million hamburgers a day, and had its first national meeting. 1965: The firm became a public company. 1971: The company opened its first restaurants in Japan, Germany and Australia.
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